Grammar: The Parts Of Speech

The English language has been used by a lot of people in the world. Understanding and communicating in English have resulted to huge advantages to anyone who is fluent with the language. This is the very reason why a lot of non-native English speakers allot time and put an extra effort in learning the English language. As a learner of the English language, one must be able to know and understand the fundamental part of English grammar: the parts of speech.

It is important to know the different parts of speech as these elements help in making good and logical sentences to understand the language. With the knowledge of these, an individual will be able to communicate and organize words in a sentence that will make speech clearer and more effective.

There are eight different parts of speech:

1. Nouns
Nouns are any names of person, places, objects, animals, and phenomena. Nouns can be classified into the following:
a. Proper vs. Common nouns
Proper nouns are nouns of specific names that start with a capital letter. Common nouns, on the other hand, are names in general.
b. Singular and Plural Nouns
Singular means only one and plural means more than one.
c. Abstract and Concrete Nouns
Abstract nouns are nouns that cannot be perceived by the sense. Concrete nouns are those that can be seen and touched.
d. Countable and Non-countable Nouns
Like the name suggests, countable nouns can be counted and have singular and plural forms. Non-count nouns are the opposite.
e. Compound Nouns
Compound nouns are nouns from two different nouns that expresses a new idea or meaning.
2. Pronouns
Pronouns are words that substitute nouns in the sentence. We use them to avoid repetition of the said nouns.
a. Personal Pronouns
These pronouns can function as a subject and object in the sentences.
b. Possessive Pronouns
These pronouns shows possession or ownership.
c. Indefinite pronouns
These pronouns are used to point out to any particular nouns.
d. Relative pronouns
These pronouns are used for relative clauses.
e. Demonstrative pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns give focus on the nouns they are replacing in sentences
f. Reflexive pronouns
These are used when the subject and the object are the same in a sentence.
The man cut himself while shaving.
I hurt myself cleaning the cupboards.
g. Intensive pronouns
These are used to put emphasis on the subject of the sentence. Its form is similar with the reflexive pronouns.
I myself do not like people who brags so much about their life.
She herself cooked is the worst critic.
h. Interrogative pronouns
These are used to begin a question.
3. Verbs
Verbs are used to describe an action or state in a sentence. There are different kinds of verbs used in the English language.
a. Linking verbs
These are verbs that joins the subject and the complement in the sentence. The complement is a noun or an adjective that describes the subject in the sentence. Common linking verbs are am, is, are, was, and were.
I am a nurse.
She was nice.
b. Action verbs
These are verbs whose action can be seen or done.
The horses run in the field.
She eats chicken every breakfast.
4. Adjectives
Adjectives are words that describes nouns. They are usually seen beside the noun that they are modifying.
The old man was carrying a blue suitcase while he was climbing up the narrow stairs.
My younger sisters wants a big red doll for her birthday.
5. Adverbs
Adverbs are modifiers. They describe verbs, adjectives, adverbs or even the whole sentence.
She walked in the room quietly.
Your answer to the question is simply idiotic.
He speaks very slowly.
6. Conjunctions
Conjunctions are words that connect grammatically equally (words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses to clauses). There are different kinds of conjunctions:
a. Coordinating conjunctions
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Most children want to eat cereal and milk in the morning.
She was so pretty, yet her attitude is appalling.
b. Subordinating conjunctions
when, while, because, until, as long as, if, once, and many more
Once the park opens, guest are expected to flock in the city.
As long as I am here, nothing or nobody is going to harm you.
c. Correlative conjunctions
either. . .or      both. . . and
neither. . . nor      not only. . . but also
Either Bob or Matt will attend the conference.
Both fish and rice are staple food in a lot of Asian countries.
7. Prepositions
Prepositions are used in sentences to link and show relationship between the preposition and to other words in a sentence. There are quite a number of prepositions in the English language.
 a. Prepositions of place
There is a small bag in the closet.
I left my sandwich on the table.
A small café opened at the airport.
b. Prepositions of time
In 2023, I can see myself as this company’s new vice president.
We are having a picnic on the weekend.
She wakes up at exactly 7 am.
c. Prepositions of Direction
The bird went through the window.
She jumped into the pool.
She walk past me.
8. Interjections
These words are used to show emotions or a particular emotion of the speaker.
Duh! She doesn’t even know my name.
Uh-oh. Your mom has that angry look on her face again.
When you get familiar with these, it will be easier to create sentences that are well-structured and logically correct.

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